N-type: The technology that defines the future of photovoltaics

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In today’s fast-paced world, the search for efficient, green energy sources is becoming a key element of the energy transition. Solar energy plays a prominent role in this context. The development of photovoltaic technology is crucial in improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of converting solar energy into electricity. One interesting development is photovoltaic modules based on N-Type technology

What is an N-type cell?

It is crucial to understand the different types of solar panels. There are P-type and N-type photovoltaic modules on the market. In a nutshell, the main difference between the two types is the number of electrons they contain. All standard solar panels are made of silicon crystals combined with different chemicals to generate energy production. The difference between a P-type panel and an N-type is related to the chemical compounds used during production. Specifically, a standard P-type solar panel uses boron, which is added to the silicon crystals. Boron has one less electron than silicon, which results in a positively polarised solar cell. N-type cells use phosphorus, which has one more electron than silicon, which, as you can guess, results in a negatively polarised solar cell


In the past, manufacturers traditionally relied on P-type cells. However, the introduction of boron in combination with oxygen can result in a loss of purity of the solar cells, which negatively affects their efficiency. In addition, boron can degrade by reacting to light. In contrast, phosphorus is not susceptible to degradation, regardless of the light source. It is worth bearing in mind, however, that these are only basic differences. Long-term trial and error in the photovoltaic industry has led to a point where it is becoming clear that N-type cells are the more efficient way forward. What’s more, companies such as Bauer Solar and Jolywood have already introduced a highly advanced N-type solar cell while setting new efficiency records

bauer solar krzem n type
Figure 1: Bauer Solar 400 Watt N-type photovoltaic module

Advantages of N-type technology

  1. Higher conversion efficiency

High efficiency in the conversion of solar energy into electricity is one of the key features of N-Type technology. The structure of N-type silicon allows for more efficient separation of the charge carriers generated, resulting in higher conversion efficiency

  1. Lower absorption losses

The N-Type structure minimises absorption losses, which means that the modules can more efficiently use the spectrum range of sunlight to generate electricity

  1. Improved pollution tolerance

The modules are more resistant to a variety of impurities, resulting in longer solar panel life

  1. Greater resistance to degradation by solar radiation

N-type technology has a lower tendency to degrade due to the LID (Light Induced Degradation) effect, resulting in photovoltaic modules aging more slowly

  1. Thin-film modules

N-Type allows for thinner semiconductor layers, which can lead to a more sustainable use of materials and less waste

Challenges of N-type technology

N-Type technology for making photovoltaic modules brings promising prospects, but also faces challenges. Production costs, integration into infrastructure and competition with other technologies are key areas to consider. Nevertheless, investment in research and process optimisation can contribute to the success of this technology. Its ability to generate energy with extended durability could play a key role in the future of RES

instalacja fotowoltaiczna z modułami bifacial jolywood n type 415 w min
Figure 2: Photovoltaic installation with Jolywood N-type 415 W bifacial modules


The N-Type system takes a step forward in the development of solar energy. Its advantages, such as higher efficiency, greater resistance to degradation and improved pollution tolerance, make it a promising alternative to traditional P-type technologies. Despite the current challenges, the prospects for development and improved production efficiency indicate that N-Type technology could play a significant role in the future of photovoltaics






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