Photovoltaic panels – manufacturing technologies – advantages and disadvantages

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In recent years, the development of photovoltaic technology has accelerated. This enables the production of increasingly efficient and cost-effective photovoltaic panels. One of the key areas of development is module technologies, which allow increased efficiency, durability and flexibility of the panels. In this article, we will focus on some important technologies in this area.


Shingled photovoltaic modules are a relatively new technology in the field of photovoltaics that uses an innovative approach to the design and construction of solar panels. These state-of-the-art modules use thin wafers with reduced thickness, called shingled cells, to provide greater efficiency and performance compared to traditional photovoltaic modules.

Shingled cells are basically simple solar cells that have been stacked on top of each other in an overlapping fashion, much like tiles on a roof. This technology reduces the distance between individual cells, which in turn increases the power density per unit area of the module. As a result, shingled modules have higher efficiency compared to traditional modules, which use larger cell spacing.

panele shingled i moduły konwencjonalne
Figure 1: Comparison of shingled and traditional modules

Another important aspect of shingled photovoltaic modules is that they are more resistant to damage and power losses associated with overheating. Traditional photovoltaic modules tend to heat up during use, which in turn leads to lower efficiency. In shingled modules, due to the reduced distance between cells, heat is better dissipated, allowing high efficiency to be maintained at high temperatures.

Shingled photovoltaic modules are also more aesthetically pleasing and elegant in appearance than traditional solar panels. Due to the smaller size of the shingled cells, the modules are flatter and smoother, allowing for a more uniform and elegant finish to the panel surface.

However, while shingled photovoltaic modules have many advantages, they are also more complicated and costly to manufacture compared to traditional solar panels. The manufacturing process for shingled modules requires more advanced technology and greater precision, which in turn affects their price.


PERC(Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell) is one of the most innovative technologies used in photovoltaic cell manufacturing. PERC has revolutionized the industry by providing higher efficiency and extending the life of cells.

PERC technology involves the use of a special silicon oxide (SiO2) layer on the back of the cells, which reduces electron and hole recombination in the emitter area. This increases the efficiency of the cells by about 1.5-2%. In addition, temperature resistance is increased and energy losses associated with reflected light are reduced.

budowa ogniwa konwencjonalnego i perc
Figure 2 Construction of a conventional and PERC cell

PERC is a photovoltaic cell technology that enables higher efficiency and more electricity from a single cell. Compared to conventional cells, PERC photovoltaic panels generate about 5-10% more energy. As a result, PERC panels are increasingly popular in industrial applications as well as in private homes.

The disadvantage of PERC technology is its higher production cost compared to traditional cells. However, considering the electricity savings that can be achieved by using PERC panels, the cost pays for itself in a short time. In addition, PERC photovoltaic panels are more durable and corrosion-resistant, so they can last for many years.


Bifacial modules are an innovative technology used in the production of photovoltaic panels. They generate current from both sides of the module by using an additional semiconductor layer on the back side of the photovoltaic cell. In traditional photovoltaic panels, usually the back sides of the cell are covered with an aluminum jacket, which acts as a reflector. With bifacial panels, this surface is replaced by a special semiconductor layer that acts as an additional light absorber and allows the reflected solar radiation to be converted into electricity. Bifacial modules can generate up to 30% additional electricity production.

The use of a semiconductor layer on the back of the cell in bifacial panels also enables the use of scattered light, which increases the amount of energy that can be generated on a given surface. In traditional photovoltaic panels, scattered light is not used and only contributes to a loss of efficiency.

Another important aspect associated with bifacial panels is that they allow electricity to be generated from dangerous and hard-to-reach areas. Bifacial panels can be used in places such as solar power plants, for example, where the panels can be placed on special structures so that solar energy can be harnessed from both sides.

In addition, bifacial panels are more resistant to mechanical damage, which translates into an extended service life. These panels also have better weather resistance, making them more durable compared to traditional photovoltaic panels.

We have dedicated a separate article to bifacial modules

instalacja fotowoltaiczna, moduł bauer solar
Figure 3: Front and rear views of the bifacial module


One of the most innovative technologies for making photovoltaic panels is SWCT, or Solid Wire Contact Technology. This is a technology based on the use of conductive wire mesh to increase the efficiency of the panels and improve their performance.

Traditional photovoltaic panels are made of silicon layers that are connected to each other by thin wires. However, these wires have limited conductivity and often lead to energy losses. Therefore, SWCTs use a wire mesh instead of individual wires to increase conductivity and reduce losses.

SWCT consists of three main layers: a semiconductor layer, a protective layer and a conductive layer. The semiconductor layer is responsible for converting solar energy into electricity. The protective layer protects the panel from external factors such as rain and wind. The conductive layer consists of a conductive wire mesh that allows current to flow from the panel.

technologia swct z bliska
Figure 5: SWCT technology up close

SWCT has many advantages over traditional photovoltaic panels. First, thanks to the conductive wire mesh, SWCT panels have higher efficiency and can produce more energy. Second, the technology is more fault-tolerant, which means the modules are more reliable and have a longer lifespan. Third, SWCT panels are easier to install and can be placed at different angles and in different orientations, making better use of available space.

Other benefits of SWCT are also lower production costs, since wire mesh is cheaper than thin wire, and a lower environmental impact, since fewer materials are used to manufacture panels using SWCT technology.


The innovative FULL SCREEN technology is known in the photovoltaic panel market through the company DAH Solar, which introduced advanced frameless modules as the first company in the world. The module made with this technology has a perfectly smooth surface, which reduces sedimentation of impurities. This allows to increase electricity production by up to 15% compared to modules .

FULL SCREEN modules will be ideal for roofs with low slope angles, as the rainwater washing over them washes the surface of dirt with high efficiency. The use of this technology makes the panels characterized by increased resistance to mechanical loads.

Rysunek 5. Technologia Full Screen

The innovative FULL SCREEN technology is shown in the video below:


In this article, we discussed several important technologies related to photovoltaic modules. Each of these technologies has its own advantages, such as minimized energy loss, increased durability, application flexibility and more. With these solutions, photovoltaic panel manufacturers are able to provide modules that can be used in a variety of locations, such as solar power plants and residential and commercial buildings.

The conclusion of this article is that photovoltaic module technologies such as Shingled, PERC, Bifacial, SWTC and Full Screen have great potential to increase the efficiency of solar energy production, which is an important step towards sustainability and environmental protection.


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